Subfamily FRINGILLINAE

The Fringillinae comprise the Bullfinches, Hose-Finches Crossbills, the true Finches and the Sparrows and Mountain-Finches, the two latter groups differing in many anatomical respects from the others, as has been already explained. They all, however,, agree in having a bill of medium or rather small size of which the upper mandible is not produced behind the front line of the bony orbit. The cutting-edges of the two mandibles are in contact throughout their length.

The majority of the Fringillines have only one moult in the year, but the wearing away of the margins of the feathers causes in many species a great difference between the Summer and Winter plumages. Young birds resemble the female.

Key to Genera.

A. Hump white; wing-quills and wings with no white…….Pyrrhula, p. 108.
B. Rump not white; inner webs of inner secondaries white………..Pyrrhoplectes, [p. 114.
C. Sexes dissimilar; males above crimson or pink, females brown or greenish.
a. No white on tail.
a1 Tips of mandibles crossed……….Loxia, p. 115.
b1. Tips of mandibles not crossed.
a2. Bill short and thick, culmen curved.
a3. Tail short, tip of wing reaching beyond middle of tail.
a4. Nostrils exposed………………Haematospiza, p. 116.
b4. Nostrils densely plumed………….Erythrospiza, p. 140..
b3 Tail moderate, tip of wing not reaching beyond middle of tail.
c4 Males with abdomen and breast of different colours.
a5. Length of culmen greater than depth at base……..Pyrrhospiza, p, 120.
b5. Length and depth of culmen about equal…….Propyrrhula, p. 118.
d4. Males with abdomen and breast of same colour.
c5. A supercilium present…………Propasser, p. 122.
d5. No supercilium present…………Carpodacus, p. 134.
b2. Bill long and slender,culmen straight Procarduelis, p. 145.
b. Lateral tail-feathers largely marked with white.
c1. Bill small but very swollen………Rhodospiza, p. 143.
d1 Bill moderate in size and stout…………..Rhodopechys, p. 144.
e1. Bill long and stout; wings spotted with white……….Callacanthis, p. 152.
f1. Bill short and pointed; plumage streaked……………Acanthis, p. 154.
D. Sexes much the same ; face scarlet, wings marked with yellow………Carduelis. p. 149.
E. Sexes dissimilar, no white on tail, plumage in both sexes largely green or yellowish.
c. Bill small and swollen, culmen curved…………….Metaponia, p. 158.
d. Bill long and sharp, culmen straight.
g1. Length of culmen about equal to depth at base………Hypacanthis, p. 160.
h1. Length of culmen equal to about twice the depth at base…..Chrysomitris, p. 162.
P. Sexes dissimilar; plumage principally brown.
e. Breast rufescent; bill lengthened and straight ……..Fringilla, p. 163.
f. Breast not rufescent; bill slender and culmen curved throughout……Gymnoris, p. 166.
g. Breast not rufescent; bill stout and curved.
i1. Pale margins of primaries not uniform in width, forming two patches on the wings.
c2. No yellow patch on throat and no white on tail……….Passer, p. 168.
d2. A yellow patch on throat and white spots on tail…………Petronia, p. 183.
j1. Pale margins to primaries uniform and not forming two patches.
e2. Tail square and not marked with white………….Montifringilla, [p. 185.
f2. Tail forked and marked with white. Fringilauda, p. 190.

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India, Including Ceylon And Burma-birds(second Edition)
Reference: 
Baker, EC S (1922–1930) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Second edition. vol.3 1926.
Title in Book: 
Subfamily FRINGILLINAE
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
Year: 
1926
Page No: 
107
Volume: 
Vol. 3
id: 
3815

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