This Sub family differs from the last in having the tail square or rounded. With few exceptions its species are migratory, whereas the Forktails are invariably resident and whilst the Redstarts and Robins are essentially Palaearctic forms the Forktails are essentially tropical or sub-tropical. Both subfamilies, however, have much the same form of bill and wings; they have their feet and tarsi formed for running on the ground and the plumage of the nestlings is somewhat similar.
Key to Genera.
A. Tail in both sexes largely chestnut *.
a. Tail considerably longer than twice tarsus.
a1.Tail nearly square; sexes different .... Phaenicurus, p. 68.
b1. Tail much rounded; sexes alike Chaimarrhornis,
b.. Tail about twice the length of tarsus. [p. 79.
c1. Rictal bristles very long and strong ........Rhyacornis, p. 81.
d1. Rictal bristles weak or obsolete Cyanosylvia, p. 83.
B. Tail without any chestnut.
c. First primary shorter than one-third of second.
e1. Difference between wing and tail less
than tarsus Luscinia, p. 87.
f1. Difference between wing and tail twice
tarsus Grandala, p. 88.
d. First primary longer than one-third of second.
g1 Tail equal to or shorter than wing.
a2.Outer tail-feathers short of tip by less than half length of middle toe.
a3. Bill straight and Thrush-like ; rictal bristles strong.
a4. Tail about twice tarsus in length.
a3. Throat of male brilliantly
coloured Calliope, p. 90.
b5 Throat of male like rest of
underparts Tarsiger,' p. 95.
b4. Tail considerably more than twice tarsus.
c5. Tail uniform in colour.
a6. Tips of tail-feathers mucronate Ianthia, p. 97.
b6. Tips of tail-feathers rounded. Adelura, p. 104.
d5. Tail largely white Notodela, p. 105.
b3. Bill slender and curved; rictal [p. 108.
bristles obsolete Saxicoloides,
b2. Outer tail-feathers short of tip by at least the length of middle toe.
c3. Tail of one colour Callene, p. 107.
d3. Tail black and white Copsychus, p. 111.
h1 Tail much longer than wing Kittactncla,p.116.
* The only exception is the female of Rhyacornis fuliginosa.