White-throated Needletail - Hirundapus caudacutus


General Information


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Common Name : White-throated Needletail
Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham, 1802)

Order : Apodiformes
Family : Apodidae
Taxonomic Group : Apodiformes - Apodidae ( Swifts )
Vernacular Name : Lepcha (Sikkim): Silliang tiphitimbo



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Taxonomy



Common Name : White-throated Needletail
Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus
Order : Apodiformes Family : Apodidae (Swifts)
Number of SubSpecies : 2

Taxon Category Sub Species / Race Range
subspeciesHirundapus caudacutus caudacutusSiberia to Japan and Kuril Islands.; winters to Australia
subspeciesHirundapus caudacutus nudipesHimalayas to sw China; winters to India and Myanmar



3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006

Common Name : White-throated Needletail
Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus
SubFamily : Apodinae

Number of SubSpecies : 2

Sub Species / Race
Hirundapus caudacutus caudacutus
Hirundapus caudacutus nudipes



IOC Common Name : White-throated Needletail
IOC Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus

Distribution :
Region : EU Range : e, s Asia
Non Breeding Range : AU

Order : APODIFORMES Family : Apodidae
Category : Swifts



SYNOPIS NO : 688-689

Scientific Name: Chaetura caudacuta
Common Name: Whitethroated Spinetail Swift



Common Name : White-throated Needletail
Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus ((Latham, 1802))
Birdlife Synonym : Needle-tailed Swift (6); Asian Spine-tailed Swift (7); Spine-tailed Swift (12)

BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Taxonomy Treatment : R




IUCN Common Name (Eng) : White-throated Needletail, Asian Spine-tailed Swift, Needle-tailed Swift, Spine-tailed Swift
Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham, 1802)
French Name : Martinet ÃÄ Queue ÃČpineuse
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for White-throated Needletail, Asian Spine-tailed Swift, Needle-tailed Swift, Spine-tailed Swift ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Species : caudacutus
Genus : Hirundapus
Family : Apodidae Order : Apodiformes

IUCN RedList Status : LC

IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N



Family : APODIDAE

Scientific Name : Hirundapus caudacutus
Common Name : White-throated Needletail



Bibliography


Bibliography of White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )
Number of Results found : 38

1. Craig Robson , (2005), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 29.


2. Barrand PD , (2005), White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus: a new bird for Christmas Island., Australian Field Ornithology, 22: 104 - 105.


3. Dick Watling , (2004), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF FIJI & WESTERN POLYNESIA; Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd, : 136.


4. Simpson; Day , (2004), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), FIELD GUIDE to the BIRDS of AUSTRALIA; Princeton University Press, 7th Edition: 162.


5. Woo-Shin Lee; Tae-Hoe Koo; Jin-Young Park , (2000), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF KOREA; LG Evergreen Foundation,Korea, : .


6. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 162.


7. Chris Doughty; Nicolas Day; Andrew Plant , (1999), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), BIRDS OF THE SOLOMONS, VANUATU & NEW CALEDONIA; A&C Black, : 130.


8. Hugh Robertson; Barrie Heather , (1999), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus caudacutus), THE HAND GUIDE to the BIRDS of NEW ZEALAND; Oxford University Press, USA, : 64.


9. K.Mullarney; L.Svensson; D.Zetterstrom; P.J.Grant , (1999), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), COLLINS BIRD GUIDE - BRITAIN & EUROPE; Collins, : 382.


10. Carol Inskipp; Tim Inskipp; Richard Grimmett , (1999), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of BHUTAN; A&C Black, : 70.


11. G.A. Taylor , (1999), Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1996, Notornis, 46:4: 434 - 445.


12. Ian Sinclair; Olivier Langrand , (1998), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), BIRDS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS; , : 174.


13. Wiegant WM; de Bruin A; CDNA , (1998), Rare birds in the Netherlands in 1996., Dutch Birding, 20: 145 - 167.


14. Sanders E; Lilipaly SJ; Ebels E , (1998), [White-throated Needletail Swift at Walcheren [The Netherlands] in May 1996.], Dutch Birding, 20: 168 - 172.


15. Jim Flegg; N.Longmore , (1994), White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus), PHOTOGRAPHIC FIELD GUIDE - BIRDS of AUSTRALIA; , : 212.


16. Dymond J.N. , (1994), White-throated Needletail, Hirundapus caudacutus, first occurrence in the Malagasy region, Bulletins of the African Bird Club, 1.2: 78 - 78.


17. Dymond, J. N. , (1994), White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus, first occurrence in the Malagasy region., Bulletin of African Bird Club, 1: 78.


18. Tarburton M.K. , (1993), Radiotracking a White-throated Needletail to roost., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 93:2: 121 - 124.


19. Tarburton, M. K. , (1993), Radiotracking a White-throated Needletail to roost., Emu, 93: 121 - 124.


20. Clayton, M. , (1993), A record of a White-throated Needletail landing in a tree., Canberra Bird Notes, 18: 21 - 22.


21. Day, N. , (1993), Tree perching and presumed roosting of White-throated Needletails Hirundapus caudacutus., Australian Bird Watcher, 15: 43 - 44.


22. Burwell, C. J., C. R. Pavey. , (1992), The insect prey of a White-throated Needletail Hirundapis caudacutus (Latham) (Aves: Apodidae)., Australian Entomology Magazine, 19: 37 - 38.


23. Jännes H; Nikander PJ; Numminen T , (1991), Report of rare birds in Finland in 1990., Lintumies, 26: 241 - 262.


24. Coventry, P. , (1989), Comments on airborne sightings of White-throated Needletails Hirundapus caudacutus., Australian Bird Watcher, 13: 36 - 37.


25. Millington, R. , (1988), Needle-tailed Swift on Orkney., Birding World, 1: 200 - 202.


26. Pettigrew J.D.; Wilson P. , (1985), Nocturnal hypothermia in the White-throated Needletail, Hirundapus caudacutus., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 85:3: 200 - 201.


27. Pettigrew, J. D., P. Wilson. , (1985), Nocturnal hypothermia in the White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus., Emu, 85: 200 - 201.


28. Ashburner, F. , (1985), A White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus on the ground., Australian Bird Watcher, 11: 100 - 101.


29. Muir, J. , (1984), Needle-tailed Swift, 1983., Orkney Bird Rept., 1984: 63.


30. Salim Ali; S Dillon Ripley  , (1983), No. 688. Whitethroated Spinetail Swift (Chaetura caudacuta nudipes ) (Hodgson) , Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 4 (Frogmouths to Pittas ): 33.


31. Watling Dick. , (1983), Ornithological notes from Sulawesi., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 83:4: 247 - 261.


32. Madden, J. L. , (1982), Avian predation of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. and its parasitoid complex in Tasmania., Australian Wildlife Research, 9: 135 - 144.


33. CLAYTON M. WHITE, WILLIAM M. BAIRD , (1977), First North American Record of the Asian Needle-tailed Swift, Hirundapus Caudacutus, The Auk, 94:2: 389 - 389.


34. Simpson K.G.; Noonan D.J. , (1967), Diving display flights of the Spine-tailed Swift, Hirundapus caudacutus., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 67:1: 27 - 31.


35. Smythies BE; , (1944), A record of Hodgson's Frogmouth (Batrachostomus javensis hodgsoni) and the Cochin-China Spinetail Hirundapus caudacutus ssp. from Northern Burma, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 44:4: 593.


36. Moncrieff P. , (1943), Occurrence of Hirundapus caudacutus in Nelson Provence., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 42:4: 249 - 249.


37. McMicking F.V. , (1925), Spine-tailed Swifts (Hirundapus caudacutus) feeding on Grasshoppers., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 25:1: 41 - 41.


38. Hume AO; , (1880), Notes, Stray Feathers, 9:4: 283 - 298.



Book Excerpts



97. Acanthylis caudacuta, Lath.

Hirundo, apud Latham - Chajt. nudipes, Hodgson, j. A. S., V. 779 - Horsf., Cat. 130 - A. fusea, Shaw, apud Blyth, Cat. 419 - C. leuconotus, Delessert, Guer. Mag. Zool., pl.20 - Gould,Birds of Australia, 2, pl. 10.

The White-necked Spine-tail.

Descr. - Head, including the upper ear-coverts and lores, back of neck, upper tail coverts, and sides of the rump, wings, and tail, dusky black, with a changeable blue-green gloss; back and scapulars whity-brown, palest in the middle ; chin, throat, and neck in front and on the sides, white ; lower neck, breast, and belly, sooty brown ; vent, lower tail coverts, and a lateral stripe from the thighs backwards, white, more or less mixed with glossy blue-black: inner webs of the last tertiaries white. Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet purplish livid.

Length 8 1/2 inches, ext. 20; wing, 8; tail, 2, nearly square. This splendid and powerful Swift has only in our province been found in the South-east portion of the Himalayas, in Nepal, Sikim, and Bootan. I frequently saw them near Darjeeling, often in the station itself, at Kursion, and other places in Sikim, scattered in vast numbers over a considerable tract of country, and flying with amazing velocity. Tickell, who observed the species also at Darjeeling, says that "it is at once recognised by his great size, and the prodigious swiftness of his movements. There is nothing I have ever witnessed equal to the flight of this bird. It breeds among the huge wall-like crags of the Himalayas and under the snow level." These Swifts appear to change their ground frequently, for you seldom see them for two days together in the same spot. Hodgson states that "it inhabits the northern regions of Nepal, whence it wanders into the mountains of the central, avoiding however the open and level country. It climbs with great power, aided by its talons and its tail. It probably breeds in some of the precipices of  the inner range of hills."

It appears probable that the Australian bird figured by Gould is the same as this one, although it is put as a distinct species by Gray and Bonaparte. In Gould's figure the forehead is pure white, and the chin whiter than in Himalayan specimens, but Mr. Blyth informs me that he has seen the Australian coloration in a specimen from China. Gould's figure, however, is inaccurate, inasmuch as he represents the lateral toes far too short, for they are nearly as long as the mid-toe.   He says that this Swift retires to roost (it is said in hollow trees ?) immediately after sunset. This is contrary to my observations of the last species at all events. I consider it very probably also Pallas' bird, Hirundo ciris, which he introduces from Steller's description, as occasionally found in Central Asia.*




963. Hirundinapus caudacuta (Lath),

 

Jerd. B. ind. i. p. 173. Chaetura nudipes, Hodgs., J. A. S. B. v. p. 779. Chaetura leuco­nota, Deless., Guer. Mag. Zool. pl. 20; Gould, B. Australia ii. pl. 10. -

The White-necked Spine-tail.
 

Head, back of neck, upper tail coverts, sides of the rump, wings and tail dusky black ; lower neck, breast, and abdomen sooty brown; back, scapulars, chin, throat, neck in front and on the sides, vent, under tail coverts, a stripe along the thighs and inner webs of the last tertiaries white ; stripe on the thigh mixed with black. Bill black ; irides deep brown; legs and feet purplish livid.

Length. - 85 inches ; wing 8 ; tail 2.

Hab.-S-E Himalayas, Nepaul, Sikkim and Bhootan. Jerdon says he frequently saw them near Darjeeling, often in the station itself, at Kurseong and other places in Sikkim, scattered in vast numbers over a considerable tract of country, and flying with amazing rapidity. Quoting Tickell, who also observed it, - he says " it is at once recognized by its great size, and the prodigious swiftness of its movements. It breeds among the huge wall-like crags of the Himalayas and under the snow level.





1077. Chaetura nudipes.

 

The White-necked Spine-tail.

Chaetura nudipes, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 779 (1836); Deless. Voy. de l'Inde, Hist. Nat. p. 25, pl. 9; Hume, Cat. no. 97 ; id. S. F. ix, pp. 230, 286; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 474. Acanthylis fusca, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 84; nec Stephens. Acanthylis nudipes, Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 111. Acanthylis caudacuta, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 173 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 354; nec Lath. Acanthylis ciris, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 339; nec Pallas. Chaetura gigantea, apud Hume & Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 30 ; nec Temm.

Silli-ang tiphi-timbo, Lepcha.
 

Coloration. A small black preocular spot; crown and sides of head, nape, hind-neck, upper surface of wings and tail, sides of rump and upper tail-coverts blackish brown, glossed with metallic green; inner webs of tertiaries partly or wholly white; back brown, whitish in the middle; chin, throat, a band down the hinder part of the flanks, area behind vent, and lower tail-coverts white; breast and abdomen brown, with a slightly reddish tinge.

Bill black; irides deep brown; legs and feet purplish livid (Jerdon).

Length about 8 ; tail 2; wing 8; tarsus .6. Tail nearly square, the spinous tips projecting -15 inch.

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Hazara to Upper Assam. This bird has been shot at Dibrugarh.

Habits, &c. This and other large Spine-tails are, I believe, absolutely the swiftest of living birds. Their flight far excels that of the Alpine Swift, and I doubt if any Falcon can approach them in speed. They are generally seen in scattered flocks that play about for a time, and disappear at a pace that must be seen to be appreciated. They roost and breed, so far as is known, amongst rocks.

C. caudacuta, which ranges from Siberia to Australia, is closely allied, but is distinguished by its white forehead.





(1603) Hirundapus caudacutus nudipes.

 

The White-throated Spinetail.

Chaetura nudipes Hodgs., J. A. S. B., v, p. 779 (1836) (Nepal); Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 172.

Vernacular names. Silli-ang tiphi-timbo (Lepcha); Dao-hadi-gadeba (Cachari).

Description. A raised spot in front of the eye and feathers round the eyes velvety-black; crown, sides of the head and neck, sides of the rump, upper tail-coverts and tail black, glossed with metallic blue and blue-green; back brown, the centre almost white, the edges darker, grading into the surrounding black; innermost secondaries with most of the inner webs pure white; remainder of wing black, glossed everywhere with deep blue except on the inner webs of the quills, which are pale-edged; the outer webs of the innermost secondaries have the gloss green instead of blue; chin, throat and under tail-coverts pure white ; a patch on the flanks marked with white; remainder of lower parts dark brown.

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs and feet blackish-purple or purple-slate, the claws black.

Measurements. Wing 196 to 209 mm.; tail 51 to 57 mm.; tarsus about 17 mm.; culmen 7 to 8 mm.

The difference in plumage between freshly-moulted and abraded birds is very great in all species of Spinetails. In the latter condition the wings and tail lose their gloss and the whole of the back and neck become almost uniform dull pale brown.

Distribution. The Himalayas from Hazara to Eastern Assam, Cachar, Sylhet and Manipur.

The overlapping in area between nudipes and cochinchinensis and the fact that "they evidently both breed in this area makes it doubtful whether they should not be treated as species rather than subspecies. Until, however, nests are actually obtained I leave the two as representative large and small races of the same species whose normal breeding-range is North and South respectively.

Nidification. Nothing is known of the breeding of this bird beyond the fact that I obtained a single oviduct egg in North Cachar measuring 31.2 x 22.4 mm., a good deal larger than an oviduct egg of H. e. cochinchinensis, also obtained in that district. Where this bird, nudipes, was shot there was an immense area of park-like country, rolling hills covered with grass, at that time a few inches high, scattered everywhere with fine Oak-trees, many of which were hollow. In view of Stewart's later discoveries, it seems very probable that these Swifts were breeding in these hollow trees whilst I was wasting my time hunting for them in caves and limestone quarries.

Habits. This magnificent Swift is sedentary, if such a term can be applied to a bird who may feed a couple of hundred miles from its roosting-haunts and whose powers of flight enable it to cover that distance in about an hour. It is a silent bird: but every now and then utters a very loud screaming cry as it hurtles through the air with a " swish " of wings only comparable to the sound of a Peregrine in the act of stooping. When hawking insects over water their flight is much less swift and they often float for a few seconds on widespread wings or playfully twist backwards and forward at a pace which, though incredible in other birds, in them seems hut the lazy grace of a wonderful power. They are present in North Cachar all the year round, always in flocks whatever the season but it is only in certain areas that they may always be met with and even then only late in the evenings. Their food is entirely insectivorous and taken on the wing, consisting in great proportion of small bees. They may roost in hollow trees some­times but others at all events roost in great numbers on limestone cliffs, where they sleep not only on the tiny ridges but apparently also on the almost vertical, though rough and broken, sides.





Hirundapus caudacutus Latham.

 

(Hirundo caudacuta Latham, Index Orn. Suppl., p. lvii, 1801: New South Wales.)





Hirundapus caudacutus nudipes Hodgs.

 

Chaetura nudipes Hodgs., J. A. S. B., vol. v, p. 779, 1836 : Nepal.

Cypselus leuconotus Delessert, Mag. de Zool., Ois., pl. 20, 1840.





Museum Collections


Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 1 for Hirundapus caudacutus

No. Museum Species Collection Deatils Collector Date of Collection Record Locality GBIF Portal Link
1Yale University Peabody MuseumHirundapus caudacutus nudipesYPM ORN ORN.042634Specimen Sikkim State India Southern Asia Link

Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)


Data Providers
  • Yale University Peabody Museum ( 1 Records )


Sound/Call


1 calls found for Hirundapus caudacutus



Remarks:
Call Type: flight call (D)

The Bird Calls are embedded through xeno-canto.org See Terms of Use xeno-canto.org


Links



Avibase - The World Bird Database for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

BirdLife Species FactSheet for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Biodiversity Heritage Library for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Discover Life Maps for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

GBIF, Global Biodiversity Information Facility for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Google Images for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Google Scholar for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Google Websites for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) CANADA for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

NCBI Molecular Data for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Pubmed Literature for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Catalogue of Life : Annual Checklist for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Tree Of Life for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

uBio Portal for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

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Wikipedia for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Xeno - Canto for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )

Zoonomen for White-throated Needletail ( Hirundapus caudacutus )



Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2014 Hirundapus caudacutus - Latham, 1802 (White-throated Needletail ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 04/22/2014
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